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GLOSSARY
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GLOSSARY
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Endoscopic Retrograde Cholangiopancreatography
Radiographic visualization of the pancreatic and biliary ducts by means of endoscopic injection of a contrast medium through the ampulla of Vater -- called also endoscopic cholangiopancreatography

Electrocoagulation
A procedure that uses an electrical current passed through an endoscope to stop bleeding in the digestive tract and to remove affected tissue.

Electrolytes
Chemicals such as salts and minerals needed for various functions in the body.

Electrogastrography (EGG)

Encopresis
Accidental passage of a bowel movement. A common disorder in children.

Endoscope
A small, flexible tube with a light and a lens on the end. It is used to look into the esophagus, stomach, duodenum, colon, or rectum. It can also be used to take tissue from the body for testing or to take color photographs of the inside of the body. Colonoscopes and sigmoidoscopes are types of endoscopes.

Endoscopic Papillotomy
See Endoscopic Sphincterotomy.

Endoscopic Retrograde Cholangiopancreatography (ERCP)
A test using an x-ray to look into the bile and pancreatic ducts. The doctor inserts an endoscope through the mouth into the duodenum and bile ducts. Dye is sent through the tube into the ducts. The dye makes the ducts show up on an x-ray.

Endoscopic Sphincterotomy
An operation to cut the muscle between the common bile duct and the pancreatic duct. The operation uses a catheter and a wire to remove gallstones or other blockages. Also called endoscopic papillotomy.

Endoscopy
A procedure that uses an endoscope to diagnose or treat a condition.

Enema
A liquid put into the rectum to clear out the bowel or to administer drugs or food.

Enteral Nutrition
A way to provide food through a tube placed in the nose, the stomach, or the small intestine. A tube in the nose is called a nasogastric or nasoenteral tube. A tube that goes through the skin into the stomach is called a gastrostomy or percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG). A tube into the small intestine is called a jejunostomy or percutaneous endoscopic jejunostomy (PEJ) tube. Also called tube feeding. See also Gastrostomy and Jejunostomy.

Enteritis
An irritation of the small intestine.

Enterocele
A hernia in the intestine. See also Hernia.

Enteroscopy
An examination of the small intestine with an endoscope. The endoscope is inserted through the mouth and stomach into the small intestine.

Enterostomal Therapy (ET) Nurse
(en-tuh-roh-STOH-mul THEH-ruh-pee nerss)
A nurse who cares for patients with an ostomy. See also Ostomy.

Enterostomy
(en-tuh-RAW-stuh-mee)
An ostomy, or opening, into the intestine through the abdominal wall.

Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA)
A blood test used to find Helicobacter pylori bacteria. Also used to diagnose an ulcer.

Eosinophilic Gastroenteritis
Infection and swelling of the lining of the stomach, small intestine, or large intestine. The infection is caused by white blood cells (eosinophils).

Eoesophageal Bile Reflux Monitoring

Epithelial Cells
One of many kinds of cells that form the epithelium and absorb nutrients. See also Epithelium.

Epithelium
The inner and outer tissue covering digestive tract organs.

ERCP
See Endoscopic Retrograde Cholangiopancreatography (ERCP).

Eructation
Belching.

Erythema Nodosum
Red swellings or sores on the lower legs during flareups of Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis. These sores show that the disease is active. They usually go away when the disease is treated.

Escherichia coli
Bacteria that cause infection and irritation of the large intestine. The bacteria are spread by unclean water, dirty cooking utensils, or undercooked meat. See also Gastroenteritis.

Esophageal Atresia
A birth defect. The esophagus lacks the opening to allow food to pass into the stomach.

Esophageal Manometry
A test to measure muscle tone inthe esophagus.

Esophageal Ph Monitoring
A test to measure the amount of acid in the esophagus.

Esophageal Reflux
See Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease.

Esophageal Spasms
Muscle cramps in the esophagus that cause pain in the chest.

Esophageal Stricture
A narrowing of the esophagus often caused by acid flowing back from the stomach. This condition may require surgery.

Esophageal Ulcer
A sore in the esophagus. Caused by long-term inflammation or damage from the residue of pills. The ulcer may cause chest pain.

Esophageal Varices
Stretched veins in the esophagus that occur when the liver is not working properly. If the veins burst, the bleeding can cause death.

Esophagitis
An irritation of the esophagus, usually caused by acid that flows up from the stomach.

Esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD)
Exam of the upper digestive tract using an endoscope. See Endoscopy.

Esophagus
The organ that connects the mouth to the stomach. Also called gullet.

Excrete
To get rid of waste from the body.

Extrahepatic Biliary Tree
The bile ducts located outside the liver.


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